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Instructional Design: Technology

This guide provides recommended resources and learning materials for Instructional Design.

Explore Instructional Design Technology Resources


Explore a four-level approach to examining classroom use of technology.


Explore the Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge Framework.

EdTech Tools

Explore a map of emerging tools ordered by learning goal.

SAMR: Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition Model

A four-level approach to examining classroom use of technology developed by  Dr. Ruben Puentedura funded by Maine Learning Technology Initiative.

SAMR Model

 Substitution: • What is gained by replacing the older technology with the new technology?
Substitution to Augmentation: Has an improvement been added to the task process that could not be accomplished with the older technology at a fundamental level? How does this feature contribute to the design?
Augmentation - Modification: How is the original task being modified? Does this modification fundamentally depend upon the new technology? How does this modification contribute to the design?
Modification - Redefinition: What is the new task? Is any portion of the original task retained? How is the new task uniquely made possible by the new technology? How does it contribute to the design? 


Transition questions from SAMR: Research and Context By Dr.  Ruben Puentedura. Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0

Image created by Dr. Ruben Puentedura, Ph.D.






Dr. Ruben Puentedura is the Founder and President of Hippasus, a consulting firm based in Western Massachusetts, focusing on transformative applications of information technologies to education. He has implemented these approaches for over twenty-five years at a range of K-20 educational institutions, as well as health and arts organizations. He is the creator of the SAMR model for selecting, using, and evaluating technology in education, which currently guides the work of the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, as well as projects in Vermont and Sweden. His current work explores new directions in mobile computing, digital storytelling, learning analytics, and educational gaming, focusing on applications in areas where they have not been traditionally employed. He can be reached at 



Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is a framework that identifies the knowledge teachers need to teach effectively with technology.

Koehler, Matthew, and Punya Mishra. "What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)?." Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education 9.1 (2009): 60-70

Mishra, Punya, Matthew J Koehler, and Danah Henriksen. "The 7 Transdisciplinary Habits of Mind: Extending the TPACK framework Towards 21st Century Learning." Educational Technology (2010).

Wolf, Matthew; J Koehler; Punya Mishra; Emily C Bouck; Michael DeSchryver; Kristen Kereluik; Tae Seob Shin; Leigh Graves. "Deep-play: developing TPACK for 21st century teachers." International Journal of Learning Technology 6.2 (2011): 146-163.

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