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Multilingual Reference Management: Multilingual Setup

Setting up Juris-M's Multilingual Capabilities

Juris-M's has a more complex set of metadata field that allow you record materials in the vernacular, transliteration, and translation. Setting up Juris-M for multi-lingual citation management is somewhat confusing at first. One of the best ways to understand it is to actually do it, make mistakes, and see the results of the options you choose.

Setting up Juris-M for Japanese

Japanese has especially complicated orthography, making Japanese Studies researchers prime candidates to best take advantage of Juris-M's multilingual functionality. This step-by-step guide will show you how to save sources with vernacular, transliterated, and translated metadata fields. For other languages the steps will basically be the same, just add the language your are working in and its corresponding romanization system.

Activating Languages and Script Variants

>> Preferences>> Langauges >> In the "add a language" box, type "Japanese."

This will allow you to tell Juris-M that a title, author, etc. is Japanese. You should have Japanese listed below, other languages may be listed too.

Adding transliterations, aka "Script Variants"

With the "Languages" tab still open, you can now add variations. For Japanese, you'll need to add a variant for Romanized Japanese.

What is ALA-LC Romanization? These are the officially accepted ways to Romanize languages not written with the Latin alphabet.

Your language section should now look something like the image below. You may have additional languages, and you can remove ones you will never use.

Finally, you can click on the text under "Nickname" and give the languages and variants more-user friendly names.

You can add as many languages as you like, with as many variations as you want to add. By including these, in some rare instances, Juris-M might automatically pull Japanese and English metadata for sources simultaneously. One case where this can happen is when saving citations from the CiNii database.

It is also important to realize that Juris-M cannot "check" if the imported data is correct. For example, you could write Japanese in an English field or vice versa. The purpose of these fields is so Juris-M knows how to correctly place all information in the correct order with the correct punctuation when automatically generating citations and bibliographies.

Adding Multilingual Information to your Sources

Sometimes Juris-M can pull multilingual information, but often you will have to do it manually. It is usually quicker to import the Japanese metadata, and then add the Romanization and/or translation. However, you will sometimes have to pull Romanized/English metadata first and add the Japanese.

This depends entirely on where you are pulling information from. Library catalogs will likely give you only the Romanization, while CiNii might give you the Japanese, Romanized, and English (translated) data all at once. This makes it essential for you to check over the data you pull so that it will format correctly when generating citations and bibliographies.

Here is an article pulled from CiNii. In this instance it only pulled the Japanese metadata for the source. Right-click title to set the language of the field. Since the document is Japanese, set it to Japanese (obviously).

What you see when you right-click a multilingual field.

Next, you need to add a parallel data field for the Romanized title. Right-click Title again and now you can "add variant." Whatever nickname you created for Romanized Japanese earlier will be displayed in this context menu.

Now, add the Romanized title.

You can repeat this process again and add English as a variant in order to include a translation.

Finally, a small but important detail, make sure that the Juris-M language field correctly indicates what language your source is in. This is important because depending on the language, Juris-M will auto-format names in different ways. So Japanese sources will have authors names in Japanese order: "Family Name Given Name," with no comma separating them, which is the standard format for citing Japanese sources.

For all languages, use the two letter code from the ISO 639-1 standard. These two letter codes can also be seen in the Juris-M language preference window. Note that language codes don't always correspond to their English names. For example, the code for Chinese is "zh," not "ch." The Chinese word for the Chinese language is in fact "Zhonghua" or "Zhongwen." Hence the zh code.

Here is an example of a complete multilingual citation with the proper language code:

Automatically Create Multilingual Citations and Bibliographies

First, you should be familiar with citation styles as they apply to citing CJK resources. Yale has a fantastic quick reference guide that covers Chicago, MLA, and APA. It covers common formats like books, journals, and newspapers. It gives special attention on how to order the vernacular, transliterated, and translated parts of citations.

Getting used to the "language grid" to set how citations are rendered is a little confusing at first. In addition to this guide, the best thing to do is tinker with the functions and get a feel for how it works through trial and error.

This image above is how the Juris-M language grid looks by default. It's essentially set to "do nothing." Meaning that Japanese sources will generate only in Japanese, and English sources only in English. It is made of 3 interacting parts, noted by the ■ red, ■ green, and ■ blue squares.

Red Box Green Box Blue Box
This grid tells Juris-M how to order vernacular, transliterated, or translated parts of a citation, or to not use them at all. Contextual menus will pop up asking if you'd like to:
  • italicize something
  • put it in brackets [ ]
  • etc.
In this box:
  • "orig" = vernacular
  • "script" = transliteration
  • "lang" = translation
In the blue box you will tell Juris-M what "script" and "lang" should be. "orig" is determined by the two letter code in the language field of your citation data.
You likely don't even need to bother with this option. The "sort" column:
  • tells Juris-M to sort items according to another language/script. So you could sort all Japanese items by Romaji.
  • However, This doesn't work if you have items with blank Romaji fields.
The "screen" column:
  • Will display your translations or transliterations instead their vernacular data.
  • This only works if you've added multilingual data.
This box tells Juris-M what languages equate to, transliteration (script), or translation (lang). Note that:
  • the vertical columns of check boxes criss-cross with rows for languages.
  • Therefore. The obvious choice for "script" (aka transliteration) is Romaji...
  • and the obvious choice for "lang" (aka translation) is English.
For other languages, you will choose other corresponding transliteration schemes by setting them up via the "add a language" bar.

Best Configurations

Experimenting with the language grid is best way to learn how it works. The two preset configurations below are "cheat sheets" for the two you'll most likely need. Match your own Juris-M language settings to the presets below. They are based on the guidelines in the Yale CJK citation guide.

Vernacular with Transliterations, no Translations

Vernacular with Transliterations AND Translations