This guide is a great place to start.
Topographic Maps: Maps that has contour lines to show relief and other natural features.
Thematic Maps: Maps that show information on a topic, such as this map showing ocean currents and sea ice.
Planimetric Maps: Maps showing only horizontal features; these maps do not show relief.
Base Maps / Reference Maps: Basic maps on which information may be placed to show a geographic relationship or correlation.
Please visit the Perry-Castañeda Library's Glossary of Cartographic Terms for more information on map-related terminology.