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Instructional Design: Models

This guide provides recommended resources and learning materials for Instructional Design.


The ADDIE model describes a systematic approach to instructional development. The term is virtually synonymous with instructional systems development (ISD) and evolved informally through oral tradition. It is not a specific, fully elaborated model in its own right but rather an umbrella term that represents a family of models that share a common underlying structure.

From Education and Technology: An Encyclopedia Ann Kovalchick and Kara Dawson, Editors





  • Analysis
  • Design
  • Development
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation.


"ADDIE Model of Design" by Fav203 - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons -

Integrated Course Design

Kemp Design Model

The Kemp Design Model (9 steps)

Kemp Design model

Image from Raquel Rico, Elizabeth O'Connor, Pat Celaya. The Kemp Instructional Design Model. Planning, Producing, and Using Instructional Technologies. 

SAMR: Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition Model

A four-level approach to examining classroom use of technology developed by  Dr. Ruben Puentedura funded by Maine Learning Technology Initiative.

SAMR Model

 Substitution: • What is gained by replacing the older technology with the new technology?
Substitution to Augmentation: Has an improvement been added to the task process that could not be accomplished with the older technology at a fundamental level? How does this feature contribute to the design?
Augmentation - Modification: How is the original task being modified? Does this modification fundamentally depend upon the new technology? How does this modification contribute to the design?
Modification - Redefinition: What is the new task? Is any portion of the original task retained? How is the new task uniquely made possible by the new technology? How does it contribute to the design? 


Transition questions from SAMR: Research and Context By Dr.  Ruben Puentedura. Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0

Image created by Dr. Ruben Puentedura, Ph.D.






Dr. Ruben Puentedura is the Founder and President of Hippasus, a consulting firm based in Western Massachusetts, focusing on transformative applications of information technologies to education. He has implemented these approaches for over twenty-five years at a range of K-20 educational institutions, as well as health and arts organizations. He is the creator of the SAMR model for selecting, using, and evaluating technology in education, which currently guides the work of the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, as well as projects in Vermont and Sweden. His current work explores new directions in mobile computing, digital storytelling, learning analytics, and educational gaming, focusing on applications in areas where they have not been traditionally employed. He can be reached at 


Systematic Design of Instruction

Understanding by Design

The Understanding by Design® framework (UbD™ framework) offers a planning
process and structure to guide curriculum, assessment, and instruction. Its
two key ideas are contained in the title: 1) focus on teaching and assessing for
understanding and learning transfer, and 2) design curriculum “backward” from
those ends. 


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