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ITA 4730: Italian femenism (Seno): Sources

Italian feminism culture

Primary Sources

Defining Primary Sources

Primary sources are original artifacts or documents. They are usually defined as first hand information that are communicated by witnesses or participants in past events. Primary sources are characterized not by their format but rather by the information they convey and their relationship to your research question.

Examples of primary sources include, but are not limited to:

  • Diaries and literary memoirs
  • Letters/correspondence
  • Artistic works (musical and visual arts)
  • News segments/transcripts
  • Speeches
  • Interviews
  • Editorials
  • Legal documents and statistics 
  • Eyewitness accounts
  • Experiment results
  • Interviews
  • Surveys
  • Fieldwork
  • Emails/ blogs/ listservs
  • Creative writing
  • Audio and video


Created during the time period by individuals involved in the event

Examples: architectural model or drawing, building or structure, letter, motion picture, organizational records, painting, personal account, photograph, print, sculpture, sketch book, contemporary review, interview, letter, manuscript, personal account, published work, score, recording.

Social Sciences

May include data collected about people, events, or environment

Examples: artifact, field notes, fossil, photograph,company statistics, consumer survey, data series, government report, interview, letter, news report, personal account, press release, public opinion survey, speech, treaty or international agreement, case study, clinical case report, experimental replication, follow-up study, longitudinal study, treatment outcome study, oral history.


Report or original findings 

Examples:  field notes, plant specimen, research report, building or structure, map, geological survey, patent, schematic drawing, technical report.

Secondary Sources

Secondary Sources 

Refer to commentaries to primary sources. These commentaries may be contained in journal articles and books.

Scholarly articles are published in academic journals. They are considered secondary sources because they provide commentary and analysis about primary sources. Remember, primary sources relate to the original source or to first hand creations such as films, archival papers, photography, manuscripts, government papers, and diaries, among others.


 Library Databases - OneSearch:

Onesearch online catalog

You can use our online catalog to find secondary sources

  • Use quotation marks to search phrases "Femminismo italiano"
  • Use boolean operators AND, OR, NOT
    • donne italiana AND Autonomia 
    • donne AND attivismo NOT bellezza
    • donne italiane e fascismo


 Google Scholar -

  • use allintitle to limit your search to keywords appearing in the title of the document
    • allintitle:"movimento femminile”
  • Use filetype to limit your search by type of file 
    • “femminismo italiano” filetype:pdf
  • Use site to limit your search to domains
    • “attivismo italiano” site:org
    • “femminismo italiano” site:it
  • Combine searches
    • allintitle:"movimento femminile” OR "liberazione femminile" site:it

Recommended Sources

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