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Foothills to Fourteeners: Preparing Students for Research in the Real World: ARCS

Guide for Library Instruction West 2016 conference presentation.

ARCS Model of Motivational Design

John Keller developed the ARCS Model of Motivational Design for adult learners in the 1980's and expanded it in a 2010 book, Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: The ARCS Model Approach. The following information is from Keller's Motivational Desing for Learning and Performance: The ARCS Model Approach, pages 47-53, 92, 126, 159, 189.

Attention

Concepts & Process Questions Main Supporting Tactics
A1 - Perceptual arousal: What can I do to capture their interest? Create curiosity and wonderment by using novel approaches, injecting personal, and/or emotional material.
A2 - Inquiry arousal: How can I stimulate an attitude of inquiry? Increase curiosity by asking questions, creating paradoxes, generating inquiry, and nurturing thinking challenges.
A3 - Variability: How can I maintain their attention? Sustain interest by variations in presentation style, concrete analogies, human interest examples, and unexpected events.

Relevance

Concepts & Process Questions Main Supporting Tactics
R1 - Goal orientation: How can I best match my learner's needs? (Do I know their needs?) Provide statements or examples of the utility of the instruction, and either present goals or have learners define them.
R2 - Motive Matching: How and when can I provide my learners with appropriate choices, responsibilities, and influences? Make instruction responsive to learner motives and values by providing personal achievement opportunities, cooperative activities, leadership responsibilities, and positive role models.
R3 - Familiarity: How can I tie the instruction to the learners' experiences? Make the materials and concepts familiar by providing concrete examples and analogies related to the learners' work or background.

Confidence

Concepts & Process Questions Main Supporting Tactics
C1 - Learning requirements: How can I assist in building a positive expectation for success? Establish trust and positive expectations by explaining the requirements for success and the evaluative criteria.
C2 - Success opportunities: How will the learning experience support or enhance the students' beliefs in their competence? Increase belief in competence by providing many, varied, and challenging experiences that increase learning success.

C3 - Personal control: How will the learners clearly know their success is based upon their efforts and abilities?

Use techniques that offer personal control (whenever possible), and provide feedback that attributes success to personal effort.

Satisfaction

Concepts & Process Questions Main Supporting Tactics
S1 - Natural consequences: How can I provide meaningful opportunities for learners to use their newly acquired knowledge/skill? Provide feedback and other information that reinforces positive feelings for personal effort and accomplishment.
S2 - Positive consequences: What will provide reinforcement to the learners' successes? Use verbal praise, real or symbolic rewards, and incentives, or let learners present the results of their efforts ("show and tell") to reward success.
S3 - Equity: How can I assist the students in anchoring a positive feeling about their accomplishments? Make performance requirements consistent with stated expectations, and use consistent measurement standards for all learners' tasks and accomplishments.

 

Motivational Design for Learning and Performance