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APRD 3302 Case Studies in Public Relations (Lee): Cite

Citation & Attribution

APA Citation Style

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.



Books

 

       


 

 

       


The 2nd example is an ebook. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it. For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author's name.

 Learn more:  Citing Books

Articles

 

       


     

 

 

     

 

   

 

 Learn more:  Citing Articles

Web

 

   


   

 

 Learn more:  Citing Electronic Sources

Additional Resources

Citing helps you to ... 

Highlight Currency

Citing current research demonstrates to readers that you are up to date and that the topic is of timely relevance.

Establish Credibility

Selecting sources from key researchers on the topic establishes your credibility and lends authority to your writing.

Frame Issue

Providing an overview of prior research tracks the development of the topic for your readers. 

Signal Allegiance

Citing sources that advocate a particular view can explicitly or implicitly demonstrate your stance on the topic.

Point to Precedent

Citing sources with similar approaches or methods gives legitimacy to your work. 

Supply Evidence

Citing sources that confirm, support, or validate your claims strengthens your argument. 

Recognize Arguments

Citing sources that represent counter arguments presents balance to your readers and provides opportunity to respond to contending positions. 

Join the Conversation

Citing sources gives your readers a roadmap to your research and allows them to respond and join the conversation with you. 

 

 Adapted from Rolf Norgaard's "Pragmatics of citation."

Decorative Articles Image

Citation Managers

Looking for a way to organize and collect citation details for your research? There are numerous citation management tools available. Citation managers will help you to store citations, generate reference lists, format in-text citations, share readings with peers. This guide will introduce a few of those options and tips for using them.  

zotero

website     support

Mendeley

website     support

Endnote

website     support

Papers

website     support

Zotero

Freemium

  Extensive citation styles

  Storage 300 MB Free

  Word processor plug-in

  Desktop/ Web Access

  Google Doc integration

  Sharing & groups

download

Mendeley

  Freemium 

  Popular citation styles

  Storage 2GB Free

  PDF reader

  Word processor plug-in

  Desktop/ Web Access

  Google Doc integration

  Sharing & groups

download

Endnote

 Basic Free  

  Popular citation styles

  Storage 2GB Free

  Word processor plug-in

  Desktop/ Web Access

Papers

 $79, $49 student  

  Popular citation styles

  PDF reader

  Word processor plugin

  Desktop

  Drop-box integration

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In-Text Citations

In-text citations shows the reader who created, thought of, or said the information you want to use in your research. In-text APA citations follow author-year format. Examples include:

  • "...quote" (Author, year, p. #).
  • Summary of quote (Author, year, p. #).
  • Author (year) said, "Quote....

Review Purdue OWL's In-Text Citation page for more information.

How to Cite Mintel

Screen capture of title page of Mintel report about marketing to millennials from February 2015.

  • Bonetto, L. (2015, February). Marketing to millennials - US. Retrieved from Mintel database. 

How to Cite IBISWorld

Screencapture of IBISWorld Smartphone App Developers industry report. 

  • Kahn, S. (2015, May). Smartphone app developers in the US (IBISWorld Industry Report No. OD5817). Retrieved from IBISWorld database. 

How to Cite Statista

  • Website (TiVo). (April 2016). Distribution of time Millennials spent watching video content in the United States as of December 2013, by type [Chart]. Retrieved from Statista database.

How to Cite a Company Website

Some style manuals require that a "retrieved" date be included. APA does not, except in cases where the content may change over time. Company website citations should include the date that the cited content was accessed.

Image of Chipotle company website with section titled food with integrity highlighted.

In this case, treat the organization as the author. We can be fairly certain that any content (aside from reviews or blog comments) was written on behalf of the company. We would not consider the author to be "Anonymous," even though no individual author is named.

If the content is not dated, use "n.d." in the place where you would normally put the publication date.

 

Media, Communication and Information Librarian

Stacy Gilbert's picture
Stacy Gilbert
Contact:
Norlin Library
(303) 492-9395